NDT in Corrosion

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Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal as a result of chemical reactions between  the metal surrounding & environment. Both the type of metal  and the environmental conditions, particularly what gases that are in contact with the metal, determine the form and rate of deterioration. It Occurs all the time Attacks many structures in a plant Shortens useful life of  plant equipment Creates safety and environmental problems Increases production downtime .

TYPES OF CORROSION

a) Low -temperature corrosion and high-temperature corrosion.

b) Dry corrosion and wet corrosion.

c) Chemical corrosion and electrochemical corrosion.

One classification regards industrial metallic corrosion in 10 categories:

1.Uniform attack, 2.Galvanic corrosion, 3.Crevice corrosion,4.Pitting, 5. Inter granular corrosion, 6.Selective leaching, 7.Stress-corrosion 8.Cracking and corrosion fatigue, 9.Hydrogen damage, 10.Oxidation, 11.High temperature corrosion.

UNIFORM CORROSION

Uniform removal of metal over the entire surface .It is the most common type of corrosion; most metal-consuming, all metals are attacked by uniform corrosion,  it could be either chemical or electrochemical, steady corrosion over the entire surface exposed to the corroding media. Least objective in engineering design: easy testing, inspection, prediction of failure. Uniform corrosion is dealt with most effectively by proper selection of materials, application of protective coatings, addition of inhibitors, cathode protection.

GALVANIC CORROSION

The corrosion of one metal caused by another in an electro chemical process driven by the potential difference between the two metals. In this process, the corrosion in one metal is accelerated (the anode) while in the other suppressed (the cathode).

Factors Influencing Galvanic Corrosion

 Potential difference: electromotive force (emf) of pure elements galvanic series of alloys.

 Environment: electrolyte conductivity, temperature, etc. be aware that under certain environment conditions a galvanic coupling may reverse their cell potential difference; galvanized steel in hot water systems.

CREVICE CORROSION

Crevice corrosion is a localized attack occurring within crevices or other shielded areas where a small volume of stagnated solution presents.

Characteristics

 crevices of the width of 25 - 100 µm are most effective, concentration of Cl- in a crevice is found to be 3-10 times higher than that in surrounding areas in a case of dilute neutral NaCl solution: pH value drops from 7 to 2-3, crevice corrosion is characterized by an initiation period with a very slow start and an ever-increasing corrosion rate.  The oxygen reduction reaction provides cathodes protection in surrounding areas, making the attack inside the crevice very difficult to inspect. it occurs in many mediums and is most intense in Cl- solutions.

PITTING

Pitting is a highly localized form of corrosion.

Characteristics : small diameters and depth-to-diameter ratio of >>1,  often in clusters, fail because of perforation with small weight loss, most destructive, very difficult to detect, difficult to evaluate by laboratory tests, develop and grow in the direction of gravity, undercut surface as they grow.

Factors Affecting Pitting

 Solutions containing chloride or chlorine-containing ions: sea water hypochlorite’s (HClO3) have strong pitting tendencies; Oxidizing metal ions with chlorides are extremely aggressive pitters: cupric (CuCl2) and ferric (FeCl3) chlorides.

Flow Pitting is associated with stagnant conditions. Increasing flow velocity decreases pitting attack.

Alloys As a class, stainless steels are more susceptible to pitting corrosion than are any other group of metals or alloys.

Solution-quenched austenitic SS exhibit better pitting resistance.

Cold working increases pitting attack of 18-8 steels, preferentially on edges.

Surface finish affects pitting resistance. Polished surfaces are more resistant than etched or ground surfaces.

Cr, Ni, Mo and N as alloying elements increase pitting resistance of SS.

EROSION CORROSION

Erosion corrosion is a result of the combined effect of chemical attack and mechanical abrasion.

Factors Affecting Erosion Corrosion

 Medium Many mediums can cause erosion corrosion. These include gases, aqueous solutions, organic systems, and liquid metals. Solid particles in suspension in fluid are most destructive by destroying surface films.

Velocity Increasing velocity generally increases erosion corrosion rate. There usually exists a critical velocity beyond which the rate of corrosion is suddenly increased. Laminar flow moving at a velocity removes metal ions from metal surface and break local equilibrium balance, encouraging further dissolution of metal, Low flow velocity helps avoid stagnant conditions, replenish oxygen and bring inhibitors to metal surface, leading to a decrease in corrosion rate, corrosion tests under static or slow motion conditions often do not represent the real situation.

Turbulence   provides a greater agitation of the fluid and greater mechanical impact to the surface of the metal. Instantaneous high pressure pulses associated with the formation and explosion of micro bubbles because most damage to metal surfaces.

Impingement Create a local environment of very high velocity, very strong turbulence, and very high pressure pulses and thus is very destructive in causing erosion corrosion.

 Cavitation damage is a special form of erosion corrosion, commonly observed on

components moving at very high velocities through fluid. It is caused by the formation and collapse of liquid vapour bubbles, which may create local pressure pulses as high as 400 MPa, causing local plastic deformation and destruction of surface films to the metal.

Design Erosion corrosion is closely related to the structure of a system and the flow pattern of the liquid; thus, many erosion corrosion situations may be avoided or minimized by proper design.

Environment

Settling and filtering to remove solids in suspension are helpful. Inhibitors may also be added to the liquid. Decreasing temperature always reduces the rate of corrosion.

Surfacing

Some surface coatings are effective to prevent other forms of corrosion, but may not have satisfactory mechanical properties to stand against erosion corrosion, particularly when a heavily suspended slurry solution is involved. Hard facings, welded overlays and replaceable inserts are widely used.

INTERGRANULAR CORROSION

Inter granular corrosion is a localized corrosion that occurs preferentially along grain boundaries inside a metal.

SELECTIVE LEACHING

Selective leaching, also known as de alloying and parting, is the selective preferential removal of one elemental spice in an alloy system.

STRESS CORROSION CRACKING

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a cracking failure of materials caused by the

Combined action of tensile stresses and corrosive environments. SCC occurs to many different materials, including plastics, Al alloys, Cu alloys, Mg alloys, carbon steels, stainless steels, Ti.

Factors Affecting Stress Corrosion Cracking Stress:

Residual stresses: welding, cold working, heat treatment and casting

Applied stresses: gravitation, mechanical assembling stresses, temperature

Variation, etc. a critical stress seems to exist for SCC for each metal-environment combination.

Time Materials fail by SCC in brittle fracture manners - corrosion is responsible for Nucleation of cracks and failure occurs by mechanical cracking. Short time SCC tests decreasing stress and temperature increases failure time.

 Metallurgical Factors

Generally speaking, pure metals have lower tendency towards stress corrosion

Cracking than alloys. Single phase structure better than multiphase structures.

Segregation of precipitates raises the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking.

However, a soft phase inclusion, such as ferrite domains in austenite stainless

steel matrix, may relax the stress concentration at crack tips and slow down their

Propagation.

Corrosion Fatigue

The presence of a corrodant, or the action of corrosion, tends to reduce the

Fatigue life, or decreases the fatigue limit, of a metal. Little is known about corrosion fatigue beyond the knowledge of stress corrosion cracking. Corrosion fatigue is characterized by transgranular cracks that do not show much branching. The final cracking is largely a mechanical process.

 Factors Affecting Corrosion Fatigue

Fatigue life in the case of pure mechanical loading is determined by the number

of cycles; the effect of cycling frequency is negligible. In the case of corrosion

fatigue, however, stress-cycle frequency has a strong influence on the fatigue life

of a metal. Corrosion fatigue is most pronounced at low stress frequencies. Low

Frequencies allow a better contact of corrodant to the metal at crack tips.

HYDROGEN DAMAGE

Hydrogen in environment is damaging to metals. Damage is associated with hydrogen absorption. Forms of damage: Embrittlement, blistering & decarburization.

Sources of atomic hydrogen:

Corrosion process, application of cathodes protection, welding, electrolysis & electroplating.

OXIDATION

Reaction between a metal and O2 at the absence of water. Dry oxidation is only a process of appreciable rate at elevated temperatures for most metals Pilling-Bed worth Ratio. It is suggested that oxidation resistance of a metal depends on the properties of the metal oxide on the surface, as determined by the Pilling-Bed worth Ratio:

PB ratio =volume oxide /volume metal

PB ratio ~ 1 gives good oxidation resistance

 INSPECTION METHODS

The present corrosion under insulation detection methods are:

Profile Radiography

In a small section of the pipe wall used for exposure. A comparator block such as a Ricki T is used to calculate the remaining wall thickness of the pipe. Iridium 192, with Cobalt 60 are exposure sources used for the pipes of heavier wall.

It is an effective evaluation method, but becomes technically challenging in piping systems over 10 inches (25.4 cm) in diameter and only offers the limited luxury of verifying relatively small areas.  This method will not detect CISCC in stainless steels. It concern radiation safety.

Ultrasonic Thickness Measurement

Is an effective method and expensive to cut the insulation holes and cover the holes with caps or covers, but limited to a small area. More expensive to cut the insulation holes and cover the holes with caps or covers. It is not practical to cut enough holes to get a reliable result. The inspection holes cut in the insulation may compromise the integrity of the insulation and add to the corrosion under insulation problem, if they are not recovered carefully. This technique will not detect CISCC in stainless steels.

Insulation Removal
Most effective & expensive method. The insulation was replaced beyond check the surface condition of the pipe. This method will detect CISCC in stainless steels; may require eddy current or liquid dyes penetrate inspection. The logistics of insulation removal will probably involve asbestos and its attendant complications.  The insulation is removed while the piping is in service.

Infrared
Infrared can be used to detect damp spots in the insulation, because there is a detectable temperature difference between the dry and the wet insulation. Corrosion is a distinct possibility in the areas beneath the wet insulation.

Neutron Backscatter

Designed to detect wet insulation on pipes and vessels. A radioactive source emits high energy neutrons into the insulation. If there is moisture in the insulation the hydrogen nuclei attenuate the energy of the neutrons. The instrument's gauge detector is only sensitive to low energy neutrons. The count displayed to the inspector is proportional to the amount of water in the insulation. Low counts per time period indicate low moisture presence.

REAL-TIME RADIOGRAPHY

Fluoroscopy gives a clear view of the pipes outside diameter through the insulation & producing a silhouette of the pipe outside diameter (OD) on a TV-type monitor and viewed during the inspection. No film is used or developed .In this device has a source and image intensifier/detector connected to a C-arm. There are two major categories of RTR devices; one using a X-ray source and radioactive source. The X-ray systems deliver far better resolution than the isotope type equipment.

REFERENCES

1.     Kobrin, G. andMoniz B. Inspection. maintenance and prevention of corrosion of pipine and equipment under thermal insulation. First International Symposium on Process Industry Piping, December 14-17, 1993, Orlando, Florida, Sponsored by NACE International and MTI.

2.     Kohl, R. and Dougan, K Methodology for detecting corrosion under insulation. Paper given

3.     Wolf, H. A. (1995) Positive materials identification of existing equipment. Second International Symposium on Mechanical Integrity of Process Piping MTI Publication No. 48. 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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