NDT in Welding

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Welding is a process by which two similar or dissimilar metals may be joined by heating them to a suitable temperature with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. The filler metal has its own melting point either approximately the same as that of the work piece metal or little lower but normally above 430 degree centigrade.

The technique of welding is considered to be comparatively new and superior in many ways over the old methods of forging and riveting.  Considerable stimulus has been given to this technique during the past several years. This has resulted in remarkable developments, in the welding process. The application of welding is now so wide-spread that there is no metal industry or branch of engineering where welding is not used in one form or the other. Even the joining together of several metals and alloys which was considered impossible by forging etc, it has been successfully done by modern welding techniques. Among the metal joining process, welding is a quicker method. By speeding up and simplifying construction techniques, it increases rate of production.

Classification of welding:

Welding process is classified into two types.

a. Non pressure welding

This process involves heating of work pieces to be joined to a temperature above melting point of the metal of the metal of the work pieces. This way the fusion of the base metal takes place and these are joined together without the application of any pressure. Fusion welding involves the  use of additional filler metal through an electrode, if necessary .

Classification of non pressure welding:

Arc Welding, Gas Welding, Thermit Welding, and Braze or Bronze Welding.

b. Pressure welding

This process involves heating of work piece to the temperature range in which the base metal of the work piece becomes plastic and then joined together by applying pressure on them. No additional filler is used in pressure welding.

Classification of pressure welding:

Resistance Welding, Pressure Gas Welding, Forge Welding, Pressure Thermit Welding, Cold Pressure Welding, Stud Welding.

Welding Equipments are, 1.Manual Welding Transformer Type or Rectifier Type Machine, 2.Welding Torch, 3.Connecting Cable, 4.Earth Cable, 5. Hand Shield, 6. Work Piece, 7. Electrode, 8. Crane, 9. Hammer, 10.Chipping Hammer, 11. Wire Brush, 12. Hand Shield, 13. Safety Equipments, 14. Crane, 15. Chisel, 16. Bench Wise, 17. Hack Saw Blade with Frame, 18. Punch, 19. Grinding Machine.

Types of Joints in Welding

There are two fundamental joints.

Butt joint is classified into two types, 1.Square Butt Joint, 2. Edge Joint.

Fillet joint are classified into four types, 1. Single Fillet, 2. Double Fillet, 3. Tee Joint, 4. Corner Joint.

Weld Positions: Welding is often done on structure in the position in which these are found. In view of this techniques have been developed to allow welding in any position. The welding position is defined by relevant standard are as follows;

Flat position: welding is performed from the upper side of the joint and the phase of the weld is approximately horizontal. This is called as flat position.

Horizontal position; the axis of the weld is approximately horizontal, but the definition varies for the groove and fillet.

Vertical position: the axis of the weld is approximately vertical that is bottom to upper side or upper side towards the lower side.

Overhead position: welding is performed from the upper side of the joint.

Electrodes:

An electrode is made of a metallic wire called core wire coated with flux. While fluxing the electrode above 20mm of its length is left bare at one end for in setting into the electrode holder.

There are two types of electrode,

Flux coated electrodes: According to the type of the flux coated at the electrode are classified like cellulosic, rutile and low hydrogen, iron oxide type of coating electrodes.

Function of flux in electrodes: It helps in producing a gaseous shield around the arc. It helps in maintaining the arc stable. Flux produces slag covering over the weld bead and thus it protects the weld bed from reacting from the atmosphere. The coating of flux makes the electrode insulated, by which the electrode can be used in high current without getting red hot. Spattering of metal during welding is also prevents by using flux. The flux materials are cellulosic metal, rutile, bll clay, iron powder, Ferro alloys, calcium carbonates, potassium and sodium silicates.

WELDING DEFECTS:

Cracks: Fracture-type discontinuities characterized by a sharp tip and high ratio of length and width to opening displacement.

Undercut: A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the toe or roots of a weld and left unfilled by weld metal.

Lack of fusion (LOF): A condition in which fusion is less than complete.

Lack of penetration (LOP): A condition in which joint penetration is less than that specified.

Tungsten inclusions: Particles from tungsten electrodes that result from improper gas tungsten arc welding procedures.

Porosity: Cavity-type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification.

Overlap: The protrusion of weld metal beyond the toe, face, or root of the weld.

Slag inclusions: Nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld metal and base Metal.

Craters: Depressions at the termination of a weld bead or in the molten weld pool.

Shrinkage voids: Cavity-type discontinuities normally formed by shrinkage during solidification.

Oxide inclusions: Particles of surface oxides that have not melted and are mixed into the weld metal.

Melt-through: A condition resulting when the arc melts through the bottom of a joint welded from one Side.

Spatter: Metal particles expelled during welding that do not form a part of the weld.

Arc strikes (arc burns): Discontinuities consisting of any localized remelted metal, heat-affected metal, or change in the surface profile of any part of a weld or base metal resulting from an arc.

Underfill: A depression on the face of the weld or root surface extending below the surface of the adjacent base metal.

Backing piece left on: Failure to remove material placed at the root of a weld joint to support molten weld metal.

Segregation: The non uniform distribution or concentration of impurities or alloying elements that arises during the solidification of the weld.

Lamellar tearing: A type of cracking that occurs in the base metal or heat-affected zone (HAZ) of restrained weld joints that is the result of inadequate ductility in the through-thickness direction of steel plate.

Defects Inspection and Testing of Welding

Weld defects are classified into two types they are,

External Defects: These are the defects which occur outside of the welding. They are like Incorrect Profile, Cracks, Crater, Spatter, Plate Melted off etc.

Internal Defects: these are the defects which occur inside the welding. They are like internal porosity, cracks, inclusions, lack of fusion, incomplete penetration.

Inspection: The object of weld inspection is carried out at three stages of welding 1.  Before welding, 2. During Welding, 3. After welding.

Before Welding: Inspection before welding consists in ascertaining whether or not given work piece is convenient for welding considering the stress set up by welding heat.  Whether the operator selected is capable of carrying out the particular job of welding or whether proper welding equipment and electrodes have been chosen to work with, whether the material to be weld is of weld able quality. Whether the edge preparation of the work pieces to be weld is according to the standard specification, whether the current and polarity selected by the welder are correct and whether the use of suitable jigs and fixtures are necessary.

During Welding: Inspecting during consists of studying in proper arc and arc length, speed of weld deposit, sequence of welding and examining whether proper cleaning of slag is carried out after each weld deposit during the process of multi-run welding. Other things to be seen are electrode spattering, under and over flushing of the electrode and by selecting the arc, to ascertain whether proper current has been selected.

Inspection after Welding: Inspection after welding is done to check the welded part and to see that it is free of any welding defect. To find out defects in a welded product various methods have been developed. Few weld defects may be seen by just visual inspection of the weld piece.  For the defects ascertain. Inspection after welding is essential because several parts after welding are sent to machine shop for finishing and if there exits some defects in the weld and it is found out during the process of machining, then lot of labor put in setting of the work on machine and then machining it for some period, result into considerable wastage.

Inspection after welding is done by the following three types of tests. The various tests to be conducted on weld joints are determined mainly by the service condition to which the weld workpieces will be subjected the tests are,

Destructive Test: Where the welded piece is tested to destruction. Such tests are made to find out the mechanical properties of the weld. One of the main objects of such tests is to access the quality of the electrodes by testing the weld made by those electrodes. Tests are carried out check the ability of the welder, to determine the weld ability of the base metal and also to determine the strength of the weld. The usual tests are 1) tensile test 2) bend test 3) impact test 4) fatigue test 5) torsion test 6) compression test

Semi Destructive Test: Test made under this heading do not completely destroy the job, but usually permit re welding thereby repairing the damage caused by testing. One method is to cut out a slice or a portion of the weld which will expose the interior of the weld. If the joint found to be satisfactory, the cut portion can be re welded. Another method known as drilling test involves drilling of a hole in the weld to enable the inspector to inspect the weld for inside.

Non Destructive Test: Tests are those where the usefulness of the test piece or job is not reduced. There are several tests, each having its own advantage. Under this heading come all the usual visual checks and the job should be examined for the following points. 1) Visual Testing 2) Liquid Penetrant Testing 3) Magnetic Particle Testing 4) Ultrasonic Testing 5) Radiographic Testing 6) Eddy Current Testing 7) Leak Testing 8) Infrared Testing

VISUAL TESTING:

The basic principle used in visual testing is to illuminate the test specimen with light usually in the visible region. The specimen is then examined with the eye or light sensitive bases. Visual inspection is useful for checking the following welding discontinuities: Dimensional accuracy of weldments, Conformity of welds to size and contour requirements, Acceptability of weld appearance with regard to surface roughness, weld spatter, and cleanness and Presence of surface flaws such as unfilled craters, pockmarks, undercuts, overlaps, and cracks.

Advantages It is simple, quick, and relatively inexpensive.

Limitations It is unreliable for detecting subsurface flaws.

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING

Liquid penetrant inspection is capable of detecting discontinuities open to the surface in weldments made of either ferromagnetic or nonferromagnetic alloys, even when the flaws are generally not visible to the unaided eye. Liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of the part, where it remains for a period of time and penetrates into the flaws. For the correct usage of liquid penetrant inspection, it is essential that the surface of the part be thoroughly clean, leaving the openings free to receive the penetrant. Operating temperatures of 20 to 30 °C (70 to 90 °F) produce optimum results. If the part is cold, the penetrant may become chilled and thickened so that it cannot enter very fine openings. If the part or the penetrant is too hot, the volatile components of the penetrant may evaporate, reducing the sensitivity. After the enetrating period, the excess penetrant remaining on the surface is removed. An absorbent, light-colored developer is then applied to the surface. This developer acts as the blotter, drawing out a portion of the penetrant that had previously seeped into the surface openings. As the penetrant is drawn out, it diffuses into the developer, forming indications that are wider than the surface openings. The inspector looks for these colored or fluorescent indications against the background of the developer.

Liquid penetrant testing is capable of detecting discontinuities open to the surface in ferromagnetic or Non Ferro magnetic materials. Liquid penetrant testing is useful for checking the following welding discontinuities are Surface cracks, porosity, lack of fusion, pin holes.

Advantages Applicable for Non-Ferro Magnetic Materials, Portable Kit, Batch Testing, Good Sensitivity, Simple, Cheap and Easy to Interpret.

Limitations It will only detect defects open to the surface, not applicable for porous materials, compatibility of chemicals, temperature dependant.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING:

Magnetic particle inspection is a non destructive method of detecting surface and near-surface flaws in ferromagnetic materials. It consists of three basic operations:

  1. Establishing a suitable magnetic field in the material being inspected
  2. Applying magnetic particles to the surface of the material
  3. Examining the surface of the material for accumulations of the particles (indications) and evaluating the serviceability of the material

Capabilities and Limitations: Magnetic particle inspection is particularly suitable for the detection of surface flaws in highly ferromagnetic metals. Under favourable conditions, those discontinuities that lie immediately under the surface are also detectable. Non ferro magnetic and weakly ferromagnetic metals, which cannot be strongly magnetized, cannot be inspected by this method. With suitable ferromagnetic metals, magnetic particle inspection is highly sensitive and produces readily discernible indications at flaws in the surface of the material being inspected.

The types of weld discontinuities normally detected by magnetic particle inspection include cracks, LOP, LOF, and porosity open to the surface. Linear porosity, slag inclusions, and gas pockets can be detected if large or extensive or if smaller and near the surface. The recognition of patterns that indicate deep-lying flaws requires more experience than that required to detect surface flaws.

Non relevant indications that have no bearing on the quality of the weldment may be produced. These indications are magnetic particle patterns held by conditions caused by leakage fields. Some of these conditions are:

  1. Particles held mechanically or by gravity in surface irregularities
  2. Adherent scale or slag
  3. Indications at a sharp change in material direction, such as sharp fillets and threads
  4. Grain boundaries. Large grain size in the weld metal or the base metal may produce indications
  5. Boundary zones in welds, such as indications produced at the junction of the weld metal and the base metal. This condition occurs in fillet welds at T-joints, or in double-V-groove joints, where 100% penetration is not required
  6. Flow lines in forgings and formed parts
  7. Brazed joints. Two parts made of a ferromagnetic material joined by a non ferromagnetic material will produce an indication
  8. Different degrees of hardness in a material, which will usually have different permeability that may create a leakage field, forming indications

RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING:

Radiography monitors the varying transmission of ionizing radiation through a material with the aid of photographic film to  detect changes in density and thickness. It will locate internal and surface-breaking defects. Discontinuities normally detected by radiographic testing includes cracks, gas holes, porosity, slag inclusion, lack of penetration, lack of fusion, overlap, excess penetration, under cut.

Advantages Gives a direct image of flaws, gives a permanent record and used in most materials.

Limitations There is a radiation health hazard, skilled radiographic interpretation is required and slow method of inspection.

ULTRASONIC TESTING:

In ultrasonic testing, a beam of ultrasonic energy is directed into a specimen, and either the energy transmitted through the specimen is measured or the energy reflected from interfaces is indicated. Normally, only the front (entry) and back surfaces plus discontinuities within the metal produce detectable reflections, but in rare cases, the HAZs or the weld itself may act as reflecting interfaces.Discontinuities normally detected by ultrasonic testing includes cracks, lack of fusion, excess penetration, lack of penetration, lack of side wall fusion, root concavity, porosity,  linear misalignments, inclusions.

Advantages Measures depth and through-wall extent, more sensitive and portable one

Limitations Unsuited to coarse grained materials, and interpretation skill is required.

ACOUSTIC EMISSION MONITORING:

Acoustic emissions are impulsively generated small-amplitude elastic stress waves created by deformations in a material. The rapid release of kinetic energy from the deformation mechanism propagates elastic waves from the source, and these are detected as small displacements on the surface of the specimen. The emissions indicate the onset and continuation of deformation and can be used to locate the source of deformation through triangulation techniques. Acoustic emissions can be used to assess weld quality by monitoring during or after welding. In weldments, regions having LOP, cracking, porosity, inclusions, or other discontinuities can be identified by detecting the acoustic emissions originating at these regions. During welding processes, acoustic emissions are caused by many factors, including plastic deformation, melting, friction, solidification, solid-solid phase transformations, and cracking. In some cases, the monitoring of acoustic emissions during welding can include automatic feedback control of the welding process. In large scale automatic welding, the readout equipment can be conveniently located near the welder controls or in a quality monitoring area.

The postweld monitoring of weldments includes both quality control inspection during the period between the completion of the weld and additional fabrication of the part and non destructive inspection of in-service weldments. An example of the former is the inspection of butt-welded plates, such as those fabricated in the building of a ship. The following example demonstrates the feasibility of immediate postweld acoustic emission monitoring of butt-welded plates.

LEAK TESTING:

Welded structures are leak tested to measure the integrity of the structure for containing gases, fluids, semisolids, and solids and for maintaining pressures and vacuums. The more common leak-testing methods used are (in order of increasing sensitivity):

  • Odor from tracer gas
  • Pressure change
  • Pressurized liquid (generally water) and visual observation
  • Pressurized gas using a leak detection solution
  • Tracer gas using thermal leak detectors
  • Helium using a mass spectrometer during pressure and vacuum tests
  • Other methods less frequently used are acoustical detection of gas flow through a leak and use of radioactive tracer gas.

Weld flaws that contribute to leakage of a structure are porosity, LOF or LOP, and cracks. Cracks are of particular concern because they may propagate when the structure is proof tested or otherwise tested for structural integrity. Therefore, it is preferred that leak testing be done after completion of the structural tests. Selection of a leak testing method depends on the environment in which the structure is used and the potential danger and economic impact involved in the event of a service failure. The acceptance criteria should include a numerical expression of the allowable leak rate; the frequently used expression "shall be free from leaks" is meaningless.

EDDY CURRENT TESTING:

Eddy current inspection is based on the principles of electromagnetic induction and is used to identify or to differentiate between a wide variety of physical, structural, and metallurgical conditions in electrically conductive ferromagnetic and non ferromagnetic metals. Normally, eddy current inspection is used only on thin-wall welded pipe and tubing for the detection of longitudinal-weld discontinuities, such as open welds, weld cracks, and porosity.

IMPERFECTION VS TYPE OF NDE MEHOD

 

VT

PT

MT

ET

RT

UTA

UTS

AE

UTT

Burn through

….

….

….

….

Ø

….

….

Ο

Cracks

Ο

Ø

Ø

Ο

….

Excessive/Inadequate Reinforcement

….

….

….

Ø

Ο

….

Ο

Inclusions (Slag/Tungsten)

….

….

Ø

Ø

Ø

Ο

Ο

….

Incomplete fusion

Ø

….

Ø

Ø

Ø

Ø

Ø

….

Incomplete Penetration

Ø

Ø

Ø

Ø

….

Misalignment

….

….

….

Ø

….

….

….

Overlap

Ø

Ο

….

Ο

….

….

….

Porosity

Ο

Ο

Ø

Ο

Ο

….

Root concavity

….

….

….

Ø

Ο

Ο

Ο

Undercut

Ø

Ø

Ο

Ø

Ο

Ο

….

Legend :

AE –Acoustic Emission

UTA – Ultrasonic Angle Beam

 

ET - Electromagnetic (Eddy Current)

UTS – Ultrasonic Straight Beam

 

MT– Magnetic Partical

UTT – Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

 

PT – Liquid Penetrant

VT – Visual Testing

 

RT – Radiography

 

 

●  - All or most Standard techniques will detect this imperfection under all or most conditions

 

Ø - One or most standard technique (s) will detect this under certain conditions 

 

Ο - Special techniques, conditions, and or personnel qualification are required to detect this imperfection

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. ASME Section V, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Non Destructive Examination.
  2. ASM Metals HandBook Volume 17 - Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control.
  3. ASME Section IX – ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Welding and Brazing Qualifications.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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